Photos of Engine Hall:
- Rateau Steam Turbine: This partly sectioned model represents the compound or multi stage impulse turbine patented by Professor ACE Rateau in 1896 in Paris and subsequently developed. It used to be directly connected with a dynamo of 600 KW. In separate chambers there are 14 simple turbines arranged in series with a common shaft. Each has a set of nozzles in which the steam is partly expanded and a rotor wheel carrying blades. High pressure steam from the boiler enters the first set of nozzles where it emerges at a very high velocity and impinges on rotor blades. After passing through the first set of blades it enters the second set of nozzles where further expansion of steam occurs and the kinetic energy thus generated is absorbed and utilized by the second set of blades and the process is repeated in the subsequent stages. As the steam expands in each stage its volume gradually increases and to meet the increasing volume the height of the nozzles and the size of the blades increase. The turbine wheels range from 22.92 inch to 34.12 inch mean diameter. The turbine was designed for a steam pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch, superheat of 160 F, and vacuum of 28 inch. It ran at 3000 rpm and developed 800 h.p.
- Left Steam Engine Governor and Right The Steam Turbine:
- Steam Engine Governor: The centrifugal governor consists of two balls (connected with linkages) which fly outwards when the speed increases and move a sleeve which by linkage, control a valve in the steam pipe. The function of the governor is to ensure steady motion of the engine when the load upon the engine is varied. Any change in the speed of the engine brings the governor into action. This saves steam and thus improves fuel economy. Centrifugal governors were introduced by Watt in 1787 but the first to attach a governor to a drop cut-off valve motion was George Henry Corliss. (1817-1888) of USA.
- The Steam Turbine: In a steam turbine there are no reciprocating parts. Here the steam delivers up its energy to revolving wheels in the flowing past blades fixed to the wheels. Steam turbines are of two types namely 1) reaction turbine and 2) impulse turbine. Other turbines are combination of these types. CA Parsons, an English man, and Charles Gordon Curtis, an American developed the reaction and impulse turbines respectively. Carl Gustaf Patric de Laval(1845-1913) made the first commercial application of the turbine in 1882.
- Trevithick’s High pressure steam engine: Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) of Great Britain introduced in 1802 the non- condensing and at that time relatively high pressure steam engine. He took out patents for his high pressure steam engine and for its use in powering a carriage. These patents represented an initial breakthrough in the history of steam technology. The characteristic feature of the engine was that it had a cylindrical boiler in which the cylinder was encased thus avoiding loss of heat. Steam was led to the cylinder via a multiple cock which allowed it to act on the either side of the piston in turn.
- The Aeolipile:
- Branca’s Steam Engine: In 1629 Giovann Branca (1571-1640), an Italian architect used a jet of steam to turn a wheel by acting on the blades around itscircumference. His machine could be described as a sort of impulse turbine which was connected through reduction gearing to a pair of stamp-mills. The devicewas used to crush ore before it was put into the smelting furnace. The design was too crude to work, and the idea lay dormant until the 19th century.